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Table of Contents

Volume 63 Issue 6 September 15, 2016

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NEWS

IN THE LITERATURE

IDSA GUIDELINE

ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES

  • In this cohort study, we show that diabetes and cirrhosis are strong risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma after sustained virologic response (SVR) has been achieved, but also that the risk diminishes significantly 2 years after SVR.

  • The strongest risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection recurrence was age ≥65 years. There was no correlation between serum anti–toxin A antibodies and recurrence; however, an antibody-mediated immune response to toxin B appears to be strongly protective against recurrence.

  • Coincident with a 2014 nationwide enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)–associated respiratory illness outbreak, 34 states reported 120 cases of acute flaccid myelitis. No definitive etiology was found; however, the strong temporal association suggested a relationship, and EV-D68 was the most common nasopharyngeal pathogen.

  • Naturally acquired antibody responses to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharides and pilus proteins were evaluated in a European population of pregnant women who delivered healthy or GBS-infected babies. The risk of neonatal infection decreases with the maternal anti-capsular polysaccharide immunoglobulin G level.

  • There is an urgent need for new strategies to reduce carbapenem consumption. Ceftazidime-avibactam was highly effective for empiric treatment of complicated urinary tract infection, including in patients with ceftazidime-nonsusceptible pathogens, and may offer an alternative to carbapenems in this setting.

  • In a prospective real-life cohort including 189 HIV-HCV co-infected cirrhotic patients treated with DAA regimen, we observed a SVR12 of 93.1% with a good tolerance. However, 12 patients experimented liver-related complication during the study period.

  • Monomicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, community acquisition, prosthetic heart valve, and male sex are associated with increased risk of infective endocarditis. The NOVA score performed well in our retrospective cohort and may assist clinical decisions in E. faecalis bacteremia patients.

  • In a large real-world observational study, treatment outcomes with sofosbuvir (SOF) and ribavirin (RBV) for genotype 3 hepatitis C virus infection were disappointing, particularly in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with SOF, peginterferon, and RBV was more successful but was rarely used.

  • The pivotal factor leading to the declining efficacy of the artemisinin-based combination on the Thailand–Myanmar border (mefloquine–artesunate) to a clinically unacceptable level is the increasing local prevalence of K13 mutations superimposed onto a long-standing background of Pfmdr1 amplification.

  • This prospective longitudinal birth cohort demonstrated that asymptomatic giardiasis in the first 6 months of life is a risk factor for poor linear growth. Furthermore, asymptomatic giardiasis neither increases nor decreases odds of having an all cause acute diarrheal episode.

BRIEF REPORTS

PHOTO QUIZ

INVITED ARTICLES

EMERGING INFECTIONS

  • A case report presents prenatal and postnatal imaging findings along with an early clinical course of an infant diagnosed with congenital Zika infection. The patient's phenotypical features fall within the fetal brain disruption sequence.

HEALTHCARE EPIDEMIOLOGY

  • Pragmatic evaluation of diagnostics depends on prevalence and the relative importance of potential errors. Benefit-Risk Evaluation of Diagnostics: A Framework provides a tool for communicating the expected clinical impact of diagnostic application and is a useful fundamental supplement to the standard analysis of diagnostic studies.

HIV/AIDS

  • In a multicohort study of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus-coinfected individuals, the crude incidence of hepatocellular cacinoma increased from 2001 to 2014, while other liver events declined. Age, cirrhosis, and low current CD4 cell count were risk factors.

  • Diabetes is common among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, especially within the first year of antiretroviral therapy. Newly occurring diabetes was associated with a high body mass index, and excessive weight gain should be avoided.

  • This study spanning 2 decades identifies high frequency (22.5%) of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance in Washington, DC, where 2.5% of the population is infected. Surveillance for resistance is critical with expanding antiretroviral use, including for prevention.

ANSWER TO THE PHOTO QUIZ

CORRESPONDENCE

ERRATA

COVER/STANDING MATERIAL

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To see an article, click its [Full Text] or [PDF] link. To review many abstracts, check the boxes to the left of the titles you want, and click the 'Get All Checked Abstract(s)' button. To see one abstract at a time, click its [Abstract] link.

September 15, 2016

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